توسعه صنایع تکمیلی

یکی از مسائلی که واقعا برای بنده به عنوان شخصی که در صنایع پتروشیمی در واحد های پلیمری کار کرده و همچنین با صنایع پایین دستی وابسته به پلیمر آشنایی کامل دارم، مطرح است این است که چرا توسعه صنایع تکمیلی اینچنینی، نباید از وظایف وزارت نفت باشد و از زیر مجموعه های وزارت صنعت، معدن و تجارت است. اگر ما بخواهیم در زمینه استقلال از وابستگی فروش نفت خام و همچنین محصولات پتروشیمی با ارزش افزوده کم، قدم برداریم باید خود وزارت نفت را به عنوان ثروتمندترین وزارتخانه کشور، به عنوان متولی جدی و قدرتمند توسعه صنایع تکمیلی بسیج کنیم. ای کاش میشد این حرف ها رو در جلسه ای جدی و ویژه مطرح کرد و ای کاش بعد از مطرح شدن پیگیری و اجرا میشد.

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه بیست و هشتم تیر 1392ساعت 8:36  توسط Ammar Ghasemian Azizi 

وولاستونیت (wollastonite)

  This formula only indicates the stoichiometry of the mineral. In order to reflect the structural units the mineral is composed of, the formula may also be written as Ca(Si3O9)0.33 or as Ca3(Si3O9).
System: Triclinic Colour: White, gray-white, light ...
Hardness: 4½ - 5
Member of: Wollastonite Group
Named in 1818 by J. Léman in honor of William Hyde Wollaston [August 6, 1766 East Dereham, Norfolk, England, United Kingdom - December 22, 1828 London, England, United Kingdom], English chemist and mineralogist who discovered palladium (1804) and rhodium (1809) and invented the reflecting goniometer (1809) and the camera lucida (1812).
Dimorph of: Pseudowollastonite














Reference of this text is: http://www.mindat.org

+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه چهارم دی 1393ساعت 15:0  توسط Ammar Ghasemian Azizi  | 

از تفاوت پلی پروپیلن هموپلیمر و کوپلیمر تا ...

Polypropylene (PPC & PPH)

Polypropylene (PP) is a plastic polymer, tough and lightweight with low water absorption and often chosen for its resistance to corrosion and excellent chemical resistance. Polypropylene offers an excellent combination of mechanical, physical, thermal and electrical properties compared to other plastics. This low cost plastic is often compared to high density polyethylene (HDPE), although it has lower impact strength, Polypropylene has superior tensile strength and working temperature. Polypropylene provides outstanding resistance to organic solvents, degreasing agents and electrolytic attack. This material is resilience against most forms of physical damage, including impact and freezing.

Polypropylene is available in two main grades, Polypropylene homopolymer and Polypropylene copolymer. Both have very similar properties but appearance and performance differences are distinctive between the two types. Polypropylene homopolymer or PPH for short is stronger and stiffer than copolymer and more widely used. With the combination of excellent chemical resistance and the ability to be joined and welded by heat fusion makes this an ideal plastic for chemical tanks and structures in corrosive environments.

Polypropylene copolymer and commonly abbreviated as PPC is tougher and more durable than PPH . Although polypropylene copolymer is softer, it offers better impact strength and tends to have better stress resistance and toughness even at low temperatures compared to Polypropylene homopolymer.

Common Uses for Polypropylene (PPC & PPH)

Polypropylene is used in many different applications from industrial, consumer goods to display applications. Polypropylene is used extensively in manufacturing chemical tanks, structural tank, liners and covers. Other common applications include, industrial battery covers, pump components and impellers. Polypropylene sheeting is also used for hygienic cladding applications. FDA Food approved makes this an ideal plastic material for food processing applications and components. Polypropylene is reasonably economical, and can be made translucent when uncolored; the natural finish is a milky white finish. Polypropylene is difficult to bond with adhesives due to its chemical resistant properties and welding and mechanical fixing is recommended.



Plastic Stockist offers a superb selection of polyethylene sheet and rod in three different grades with custom sizes available. High density polyethylene is commonly abbreviated as HDPE and also referred to as PE300. HDPE is used in a variety of applications and industries where excellent impact resistance, high tensile strength, low moisture absorption and chemical and corrosion resistance properties are required. HDPE in the natural colour finish also meets the FDA/USDA food handling guidelines.

High Molecular Weight Polyethylene is commonly abbreviated as HMWPE and also referred to as PE500. HMWPE is commonly used as wear parts and abrasion resistant components in the conveyor and materials handling industry. HMWPE is used in food prepartaion and chopping boards because its slightly softer than UHMWPE - PE1000 grade and better for the cutting equipments. Also, HMWPE offers a better consistent and durable cutting surface than HDPE.

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene is commonly abbreviated as UHMWPE and also referred to as PE1000. Polyethylene PE1000 grade offers exceptional and unique combination of low friction surface, great impact strength and wear and corrosion resistance. UHMWPE retains key physical properties and high impact strength, even at low temperatures to -30°C. This excellent general-purpose plastic with self lubricating properties offers noise reduction and low friction surface. UHMWPE offers good chemical resistant and low moisture absorption. UHWMPE (natural) is an outstanding solution for food handling components, and meets FDA, USDA and 3-A Dairy guidelines for food processing and handling.

Common Uses for Polyethylene

Polyethylene is used extensively for components in the material handling and conveyor industries. Polyethylene is used for wear strips, valves and seals that require low coefficient of friction with good wear resistance. Other applications for polyethylene are sliding bearings, sliding pads, bearing, wear parts, wear plates, rope pulleys, scraper blades, chute, rollers, chain sprockets, chopping boards and food processing equipment.


Acetal / Delrin

Plastic Stockist provides a great range of acetal and delrin engineering grade plastic at fantastic prices. Acetal available in natural or black, is well suited for machining on automatic lathes and is particularly recommended for mechanical precision parts. Acetal copolymer is more resistant against hydrolysis, strong alkalis and thermal-oxidative degradation than the acetal homopolymer. The latter, however, has higher, mechanical strength, stiffness, hardness and creep resistance as well as a lower thermal expansion rate. We offer sheets/plates in a thickness of 1-120mm, and rods with a diameter of 5-400mm.

Common Uses for Acetal / Delrin

Acetal is commonly used for gear wheels, cams, heavy load bearings and rollers, valve seats, snapfit assemblies and precision parts. This plastic has low moisture sensitivity, good fatigue life and high resistance to solvents and chemicals.

Delrin is used for gear wheels, cams, bearings, rollers, precision parts and electrical insulators. This plastic has good fatigue life, high resistance to solvents and chemicals and low moisture sensitivity.


Nylon 66 Glass Filled

Plastic Stockist offers Glass Filled Nylon 66 (PA66-GF30) with 30% glass fibre filled. The filler addition adds increase strength, creep resistance and enhanced stability whilst retaining an excellent wear resistance. This reinforced and heat stabilsed nylon grade offers higher maximum service temperature and offers much better strength than the general purpose nylon.

Common Uses for Nylon 66 Glass Filled

Glass filled Nylon 66 is used where increase strength and higher service temperature is required. Application examples include damping plates, bearings, bushing, friction strips, piston guides and Valve seats and wear surfaces.


Oil Filled Nylon

Plastic Stockist provides Oil Filled Nylon in both sheet and rod form that offers self lubricating properties. This plastic offers the toughness of cast nylon 6 with an oil-based lubricant that is encapsulated within the nylon. It increases the load bearing performance of the material when compared to unfilled nylons and reduces the coefficient of friction by half.

Common Uses for Oil Filled Nylon

Oil Filled Nylon is ideal for industrial applications that are heavy loaded and slow moving. The internally lubricating properties vastly improve wear resistance of up to ten times compared to standard nylon.



Plastic Stockist provides a great selection of PTFE sheet and PTFE rods in virgin grade with exceptional properties. This fluorocarbon polymer based material is known as PolyTetraFluoroEthylene and abbreviated PTFE for short. This plastic provides outstanding chemical resistance and processes a high inertness towards nearly all known chemicals. PTFE has a continuous service temperature of up to 250°C and even higher temperatures for limited periods. The lower service temperature is just as impressive offering satisfactory performance at temperatures below - 200°C.

PTFE offers excellent thermal and electrical insulation properties, self-lubricating with low coefficient of friction makes PTFE ideally suited for the production of high temperature bearings seals. PTFE mechanical properties are considered low compared to other plastic materials but this can be enhanced by adding fillers such as graphite, glass and carbon. PTFE also has low moisture absorption, low compressive & tensile strength. PTFE virgin grade is FDA approved.

Common Uses for PTFE

PTFE is ideally suited for the production of high temperature bearings seals and insulators used in the aerospace, semiconductors, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and chemical processing industries. PTFE can be used for friction pads, bearings and rollers. PTFE virgin grade is food approved and often used in food processing applications for parts that experience high temperatures.


Reference of this text is: http://www.plasticstockist.com


Ammar Ghasemian Azizi ,


+ نوشته شده در  جمعه بیست و هشتم آذر 1393ساعت 13:22  توسط Ammar Ghasemian Azizi  | 


SLA rapid prototypingSLA  (Stereo  Lithographic  Apparatus)  Rapid  Prototyping  technologies  are  based  on  thePolymerization of photosensitive polymer resins. SLA uses an ultraviolet laser focused to a smallpoint to draw on the surface of a liquid thermoset resin. Where it draws, the liquid turns to solid.This is repeated in thin, two-dimensional cross-sections that are layered to form complex three-dimensional parts. SLA is ideal for delivering low volume plastic models and parts for engineeringand research uses, especially in auto, medical equipment, aerospace, machinery industries.Other Plastic Fabrication MethodsFor  small  quantity  of  plastic  molds,  models,  prototypes  and  parts,  other  common processingmethods  include  Reaction  Injection  Molding,  Vacuum  Casting,  CNC  Machining,Blow/Compression Molding, Extrusion, Foaming and Thermo-forming.Whatever your manufacture requirement is,  KAIAO can bring up the best solution. For moreinformation, please contact us at kaiaorp1995@gmail.com or 8675581475061.

+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه بیست و پنجم آذر 1393ساعت 21:52  توسط Ammar Ghasemian Azizi  | 

Error at IBM Lab Finds New Family of Materials (اشتباه در آزمایشگاه IBM منجر به کشف خانواده جدیدی از

As a research chemist at an IBM laboratory, Jeannette M. Garcia spends her days mixing and heating chemicals in pursuit of stronger and more easily recyclable plastics. Recently she followed a simple formula that required mixing three components in a beaker. Somehow she missed a step, leaving out a chemical. She returned to find her beaker filled with a hard white plastic that had even frozen the stirrer.

Dr. Garcia tried grinding the mystery material, to no avail. Then she took a hammer to the beaker to free it.

That laboratory error has led to the discovery of a new family of materials that are unusually strong and light, exhibit “self-healing” properties and can be easily reformed to make products recyclable.

The materials — two new types of synthetic polymers — could have transportation uses. Because of their recyclability, they also could have an impact on consumer products, as well as on the industrial packaging for microelectronics components.

The findings were reported on Thursday in the journal Science by a research team at IBM’s Almaden Research Laboratory in San Jose, Calif.

A Scanning Electron Microscopy image of one of the new ultra-strong polymers, which could have applications for transportation, as well as have an impact on consumer products and packaging.Credit IBM

There has been an explosion of new polymer materials in recent years, but most of them are variants of existing synthetic classes that are characterized by long chains of simpler molecules connected through chemical bonds. The materials are today ubiquitous in modern life, found in everything from paints and contact lenses to garments and batteries.

“They are just pervasively used materials,” said James L. Hedrick, an advanced organic materials scientist at IBM in San Jose. “This is the polymer age.”

The IBM scientists say that this is the first distinctly new family that has been discovered in several decades.

They said they had not yet named the new family, which they have code-named “Titan” and “Hydro.” The materials are not yet ready for commercial use, but the scientists said they had already begun working with several universities on composite applications that could have a significant impact on manufacturing and fabrication in the fields of transportation, aerospace and microelectronics.

The materials are known as thermosets because they are formed using a heating process. Their strength comes from their three-dimensional network of chemical bonds. The polymers have the rigidity of bones, one of the strongest biological materials, and can be made as much as 50 percent stronger by blending them in composite form with materials like carbon nanotubes. They also tend to perform better than other types of polymers under high temperatures.

IBM has invested heavily in new computational chemistry technologies that rely on supercomputers. The researchers were able to build a computer model of the new material, characterizing it in two distinct types, one that was “soft and gooey” and the other extremely rigid.

“There is this conventional wisdom out there that the main classes of polymer materials have all been discovered,” said Bob Allen, a senior manager for Chemistry and Advanced Materials Research at the laboratory. “But with this approach that we’ve taken with heavy doses of computational time, as well as hard-core laboratory synthesis, we’ve come up with a new one.”

The IBM finding evokes the discovery of Teflon, said Timothy E. Long, a chemistry professor at Virginia Tech. “Serendipity is the mother of invention.”

In 1938, while looking for alternative refrigerants, Roy Plunkett, a DuPont chemist, inadvertently polymerized tetrafluorethylene, accidentally creating one of the most slippery materials.

In a perspective essay accompanying the research article in Science, Dr. Long argued that the new materials represented a significant advance in efforts to make consumer goods more easily recyclable, particularly electronics, which have become a major waste problem.

“Thermosets are designed to be exceptionally stable in terms of temperature and mechanical properties; they are not designed to be reversible,” he said. “To think about materials that have all of these properties, and which are also recyclable, is an advance.”

+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه چهارم شهریور 1393ساعت 9:42  توسط Ammar Ghasemian Azizi  | 

what is a brabender mixer? ( برابندر میکسر چیست؟ )

Brabender mixer is used to obtain a higher degree of blending and mixing of polymeric materials and their composites to achieve optimum properties through homogenous mixing.

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه سوم شهریور 1393ساعت 12:2  توسط Ammar Ghasemian Azizi  | 

Talc in Plastics - تالک در پلاستیک ها

Talc in Plastics

Talc is a highly functional additive that enhances key properties of numerous resins. In addition to being a cost-effective filler, talc can effectively provide antiblocking, reinforcement, and improved barrier properties. During polymer processing, talc, as the softest mineral, minimizes equipment wear. It also decreases mold shrinkage, and improves end product machining.

Uses For Talc In Plastics
Plastics exhibit increased stiffness, reduced mold shrinkage, improved heat stability and lower material costs when filled with the appropriately sized talc. Impact strength can be maintained when the particle size is carefully controlled to a 1 to 2 micron, ultrafine median particle size while maintaining a minimum top size. In addition to size, talc particle shape and particle aspect ratio can be used to further optimize these properties. Talc-filled polypropylene automotive parts, whether they are interior, exterior or under the hood applications, have the required stiffness, strength and other mechanical properties. Talc-filled polypropylene works well in appliance applications requiring load-bearing properties at ambient and elevated temperatures.  

Thermoplastic elastomers, whether they be homopolymer, copolymer or TPO resin systems, benefit from the addition of the appropriately sized, high aspect ratio talc. Talc filled olefins also exhibit ductile fracture while the base resin fractures tend to be brittle.   

As an example, talc with an aspect ratio of 10 to 1 when melt compounded with a homopolymer will provide a 250 percent increase in flexural modulus.

In polyethylene film applications, talc is an effective, low abrasion antiblock. Polyester gel coat barrier properties are improved with the addition of fine ground, platy talc. Talc also functions well as a nucleating agent during melt compounding. 

Some of the key plastic application areas for talc are:

  • Anti-block in
    • LLDPE, LDPE, & PP Films
  • Barrier in
    • BMC, Polyester Gel Coats
  • Reinforcement in
    • Polypropylene
    • TPOs/TPEs
    • HDPE
    • Nylon
    • Epoxy
    • Phenolics
  • Nucleation agent in
    • Nylon
    • Polyolefins

Specialty Minerals Talcs in Plastics
A variety of talcs are manufactured by Specialty Minerals to suit the formulator’s need to optimize the properties of a particular polymer system for a particular application. FlexTalc® talc products are ideal for the high performance automotive TPOs for interior and exterior applications. FlexTalc 610, an ultrafine 1 micron talc, provides the best performance. These high brightness products provide increased stiffness, i.e., improve the flexural modulus, improve the heat deflection temperature and the tensile strength of the base polymer. For the same high mechanical performance, but where high brightness is not essential, the Barretts, Montana, MicroTuff® AG talc series offers a cost-effective alternative. When mechanical demands are less, but brightness is still critical, the Mt. Vernon, Indiana, MicroTuff® 9100 talc series are recommended.

Specialty Minerals was the developer of talc-based antiblock additives for polyethylene films.  ABT® and Polybloc® talcs are best suited for general purpose blown films. When the highest clarity is required, the Optibloc® family of products should be used.

For nucleation, use an ultrafine ground talc such as UltraTalc® 609 talc. This and slightly coarser products act as nucleation centers, increasing the temperature at which the polymer crystallizes and solidifies, thereby reducing cycle time and increasing productivity.


Learn more:

Reference of this text is: http://www.specialtyminerals.com

+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه نوزدهم شهریور 1392ساعت 16:22  توسط Ammar Ghasemian Azizi  | 


از تیر ماه سال 1387 که این وبلاگ رو راه اندازی کردم، این همه تلاش کردم که در راستای توسعه دانش علم پلیمر و همچنین کامپاندهای پلیمری قدم مثبتی برداشته باشم ولی حیف که کسی این تلاش رو ستایش نمیکنه هیچ، بلکه هستند دوستانی که این عمل رو زیر سوال میبرند. این همه تلاش میکنم برای سربلندی ایران عزیز و در دسترس گذاشتن مطالب علمی برای جویندگان علم پلیمر بدون هیچ چشم داشتی و وقتی پاسخش میشه این فقط افسوس میخورم. خوب من که این مطالب رو خودم خوندم و بهشون اشراف کامل دارم و این یعنی وقتی اینجا جمع آوری میکنم واسه خدمت رسانی هستش و نه بیشتر.

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه هفدهم شهریور 1392ساعت 5:50  توسط Ammar Ghasemian Azizi  | 

انواع الیاف شیشه - types of glass fiber

The types of glass fiber most commonly used are mainly E-glass (alumino-borosilicate glass with less than 1% w/w alkali oxides, mainly used for glass-reinforced plastics), but also A-glass (alkali-lime glass with little or no boron oxide), E-CR-glass (alumino-lime silicate with less than 1% w/w alkali oxides, has high acid resistance), C-glass (alkali-lime glass with high boron oxide content, used for example for glass staple fibers), D-glass (borosilicate glass with low dielectric constant), R-glass (alumino silicate glass without MgO and CaO with high mechanical requirements), and S-glass (alumino silicate glass without CaO but with high MgO content with high tensile strength).

Reference of this text is Wikipedia free encyclopedia.

+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه بیست و نهم مرداد 1392ساعت 8:26  توسط Ammar Ghasemian Azizi  | 

کاتالیستی جهت الکترولیز آب

+ نوشته شده در  شنبه نوزدهم مرداد 1392ساعت 0:2  توسط Ammar Ghasemian Azizi  | 

مطالب قدیمی‌تر